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Wilke, A.; Welfens, P.J.J.: Urban Wind Energy Production in European Cities: New Opportunities

Wilke, A.; Welfens, P.J.J.: Urban Wind Energy Production in European Cities: New Opportunities

JEL classification: Q42, Q48, Q50, R11

Key words: urban wind farming, MERRA2, wind energy potential, climate policy, regulation

 

Summary: 

Climate policy challenges reinforce the search for additional elements of renewable energy generation. Small-scale wind energy provides new opportunities for decentralized electricity production, while avoiding grid-dependence and transmission losses. This paper presents a potential analysis for urban wind energy production for two European cities. The simulation follows the framework presented by Rezaeiha et al. (2020) and extends it by using the reanalysis wind grid dataset MERRA2 by NASA (GES DISC, 2020). The dataset combines reliable and complete weather observations in a standardized manner on a global scale, mitigating observation gaps of meteorological stations. This allows us to provide a preliminary potential analysis, while avoiding inaccuracies based on long-distance interpolation. The analyzed cities show considerable urban wind energy farming potential. For the city of Lisbon, Portugal, the installation of only four VAWT on 264 buildings between 20 115 m throughout the city provides an annual wind energy production potential (AEPP) of 9,203 MWh, which approximately corresponds to the annual electricity consumption of 7,167 residents. In Hamburg, Germany, the AEPP amounts to 16,927 MWh produced by 2,840 turbines (four turbines on 710 buildings), which approximately corresponds to the annual electricity consumption of 10,932 residents. The AEEP can easily be increased by using more efficient HAWT, whereby technological advancements in recent years have made them applicable even in the urban environment setting. Additionally, small wind turbines could be installed on buildings of a height lower than 20 m, especially when the overall built environment of the city is rather flat, such as in Lisbon.

  

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